References & Bibliography

A listing of publications referred to within the text or that provided significant input into the creation of these guidelines.

General guidelines

1 INTECO (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologi´as de la Comunicacio´n), Spain, 2009,Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) Accessibility Recommendations.

2 Consumer Expert Group, 2006,Digital TV Equipment: Vulnerable Consumer Requirements.

3 Trisha O’Connell (WGBH NCAM) & Mark Magennis (NCBI CFIT), 2009,G3ICT e-Accessibility Policy Toolkit for Persons with Disabilities: Television.

4 Royal National Institute of Blind People, Submission to Think Tank on Convergence at the Department of Culture, Media and Sport:How do we achieve accessibility in a converged world?

5 Dr. Ruth-Blandina M. Quinn, Broadcasting Commission of Ireland, 2003, Accessing Television.

Consumer equipment

6 EICTA (now DIGITALEUROPE), 2007, Digital TV e-Accessibility requirements.

7 EICTA (now DIGITALEUROPE), 2007, Industry Self-Commitment, to improve the accessibility of digital TV receiving equipment sold in the European Union, Brussels, November 30, 2007.

8 World Blind Union, 2011,WBU User Requirements for Television Receiving Equipment.

9 Royal National Institute of Blind People, 2009,Text on screen guidelines for television audiences with a sight problem.

10 Chris Schmidt and Tom Wlodkowski, WGBH National Centre for Accessible Media (NCAM) , 2003, Developer's Guide to Creating Talking Menus for Set-top Boxes and DVDs.

11 W. Bradley Fain, Georgia Tech Research Institute, 2004, An analysis of a survey of 402 participants with disabilities focusing on universal design features found in common consumer products.

Remote controls

12 Dr Jonathan Freeman, Dr Jane Lessiter, Andrea Miotto and Eva Ferrari, i2 media research Ltd. & Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, on behalf of the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, 2008,A comparative study of remote control devices for digital TV (DTV) receivers.

13 Digital TV Group (DTG), 2008, D-Book v6.0 Chapter 25: Remote Control Design and Features.

14 Cardiac Project, 2009,Guidelines on remote controls.

15 Dr Jonathan Freeman & Dr Jane Lessiter, i2 media research Ltd, on behalf of Ofcom, 2007,Easy to use digital television receivers: remote control buttons and functions used by different types of consumer.

Spoken output

16 International Electrotechnical Commission, Text To Speech For Television - Part 1: General requirements.

17 DIGITALEUROPE, 2010, Text-to-Speech for TV: Specification version 0.68.

18 Digital TV Group (DTG), 2009,Implementation Guidelines and Recommendations for Text-to-Speech v.1.4.


19 National Disability Authority, 2005,First Steps in Producing Accessible publications.

20 National Adult Literacy Agency, 2008,Plain English guidelines at a glance.

21 National Adult Literacy Agency,Simply Put.

Content access services

22 Peter Olaf Looms, 2010, The case for DTV access services, EBU Technical Review.

23 Peter Olaf Looms, 2010, The production and delivery of DTV access services, EBU Technical Review.

24 Peter Olaf Looms, 2010, The future of DTV access services, EBU Technical Review.

25 DTV4All project, 2008, Detailed Work Plan for the full-scale Deployment of Mature Access Services.

26 DTV4All project, 2010, Final Report on Pilot Services part 1.

27 DTV4All project, 2010, Final Report on Pilot Services part 2.

28 DTV4All project, 2008, A Shortlist of Emerging Access Services.

29 DTV4All project, 2010, Interim Report on Expert User Tests.

30 DTV4All project, 2010, 2nd Phase Emerging Access Service Demonstrators.

31 DTV4All project, 2010, Final Report on Expert User Tests of Emerging Access Services.


32 BBC, 2009,Online Subtitling Editorial Guidelines V1.1.

33 The Described and Captioned Media Program & the National Association for the Deaf, 1994,Captioning Key.

34 Independent Television Commission, 1999,ITC Guidelines on Standards for Subtitling.

35 Canadian Association of Broadcasters English-language Working Group on Closed Captioning Standards, 2008,Closed Captioning Standards and Protocol for Canadian English Language Television Programming Services.

36 WGBH Media Access Group, 2002, Captioning FAQ.

37 Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (formerly Broadcasting Commission of Ireland), 2007,BCI Guidelines – Subtitling.

38 Mary Carroll and Jan Ivarsson, European Association for Studies in Screen, Translation, 1998,Code of Good Subtitling Practice.

39 Ipsos UK for Ofcom, 2005, Subtitling - An Issue of Speed?

40 Rander, Anni and Peter Olaf Looms, DR, 2010, The accessibility of television news with live subtitling on digital television. Pages 155-160. Proceedings of the 8th international interactive conference on Interactive TV & Video, Tampere, Finland June 09 - 11, 2010. ISBN 978-1-60558-831-5.

41 Carl Jensema, 1998,Viewer reaction to different television captioning speeds, American Annals of the Deaf, 143(4):318–324 (1998).

42 Carl J. Jensema, Sameh El Sharkawy, Ramalinga Sarma Danturthi, Robert Burch, and David Hsu, 2000,Eye-movement patterns of captioned-television viewers, American Annals of the Deaf, 145(3):275–285 (2000).

43 D. I. Fels, J. P. Udo, P. Ting, J. E. Diamond and J. I. Diamond, 2006,Odd Job Jack described: a universal design approach to described video, Universal Access in the Information Society Volume 5, Number 1, Pages 73-81.

Audio description

44 Independent Television Commission, 2000,ITC Guidelines on Standards for Audio Description.

45 The Described and Captioned Media Program & the American Foundation for the Blind, 2008,Description Key.

46 Audio Description Coalition, 2009,Standards for Audio Description and Code of Professional Conduct for Describers, 3rd edition.

47 American Council for the Blind Audio Description Project, 2009-2011, ACB/ADP Audio Description Standards.

48 Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (formerly Broadcasting Commission of Ireland), 2007,BCI Guidelines – Audio Description.

49 Royal National Institute of Blind People, 2009,Audio Description for Children.

50 N.E. Tanton, T. Ware and M. Armstrong, BBC, 2004,Audio Description: what it is and how it works.

51 Clive Miller & Nick Tanton, 2003,Audio description user requirements.

52 DIGITALEUROPE, 2009, The Provision of Supplementary Audio Streams in Broadcast Networks.

Sign language interpreting

53 Independent Television Commission, 2002,ITC Guidelines on Standards for Sign Language on Digital Terrestrial Television.

54 Broadcasting Authority of Ireland (formerly Broadcasting Commission of Ireland), 2007,BCI Guidelines – Irish Sign Language.

Customer service

55 Department of Public Expenditure and Reform (Ireland), 1997,Quality Customer Service (QCS) Initiative.

56 World Blind Union (WBU), International User Requirements for Television Receiving Equipment.

57 David Douthit, Michael Flach and Vivek Agarwal, 2011, Accenture,A Returning Problem Reducing the Quantity and Cost of Product Returns in Consumer Electronics. 2011.

Viewer experiences

58 Ofcom, 2009, Digital Lifestyles: Hesitants, Resistors and Economisers.

59 Evans, E. J. And Pearson, R, 2009.Boxed Out: Visually Impaired Audiences, Audio Description and the Cultural Value of the Television Image. Participations: The Online Journal of Audience Studies, 6(2).

60 Professor Roberta Pearson and Elizabeth Evans, University of Nottingham, Institute of Film and Television Studies (Commissioned by the Royal National Institute of Blind People), 2008, Boxed Out: Television and people with sight problems.

61 Leen Petre´ and Edward Chandler, Royal National Institute of Blind People, 2009, Research into Digital Television: Analysis of a 2007 survey on the user habits and preferences of blind and partially sighted people, ISBN-10: 1444500333, ISBN-13: 978-1444500332.

62 Ofcom, 2008, People with visual impairments and communications services.


63 Department for Culture, Media and Sport (UK), 2005,Report of a Digital Switchover Technical Trial at Ferryside and Llansteffan.

64 National Disability Authority, 2006,IT Procurement Toolkit.

65 Gaymu, J., Ekamper, P., & Beets, G., 2008, Future trends in health and marital status: effects on the structure of living arrangements of older Europeans in 2030. European Journal of Ageing, 5, 5-17.

66 Office for Disability Issues (ODI), 2011,Commissioning accessible video.