CP 1.2 – Use clear and simple language

Why is this important?

Digital content is different from print. Web users demand information and interaction instantly. Digital content can be consumed on a wide variety of device types – ranging from large laptop screens, TVs and projectors, to mobile phones and tablets.

Clear and simple language makes your content easy to read and helps users retrieve information faster.


Do not assume that everyone is familiar with the subject area of your content

    • Avoid technical jargon, colloquialisms, slang, organisation or department speak – change these terms into everyday language.
    • Unless commonly recognised, provide the full word or phrase for any acronyms, initialisms and abbreviations, the first time they are used in a web page or document, for example, “National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)”
    • Avoid Latin and French expressions. Abbreviations such as e.g., i.e. and etc. can be confusing - use the full English equivalents such as ‘for example’, ‘that is’ and ‘and so on’, instead. Include non-English terms for which there is an English term available, such as vis-à-vis (in relation to).

Avoid using technical words and terms that members of the public may not be familiar with and if you must use technical words explain what they mean. The example – instead of 30 km/h use 30 km/h (kilometres per hour)

Example of how to define unfamiliar acronyms, spell it out the first time it is used, followed by the acronym in brackets. For example instead of WPA2, use Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA2)

Use full English equivalent instead of Latin and French expressions, use

Be concise

    • Cut out excess words and ‘fluff ’(see examples);
    • Aim for your content to be about half the size of the equivalent printed document;
    • Only include content that is relevant to the subject and to your audience.

Write content for low literacy

Writing content for lower reading levels benefits users with cognitive impairments, those for whom English is a second language, and users who may be distracted while reading.

    • Avoid 'big' words just for the sake of it
    • Avoid contractions (don’t, didn’t, couldn’t)
    • Use simple sentence structures that avoid the need for extensive and complex punctuation
    • Be direct. If users need to complete a task tell them - avoid subtlety – for example, instead of saying, “you can download this page as a brochure”, say “See the brochures section for a PDF download of this article”, or if possible, provide a direct link to the download.

Use an active rather than a passive voice

Almost every resource on writing effective English provides a section that explains the importance of avoiding the passive voice.

    • Identify who is doing the action and make them the subject of the sentence, for example, a passive instruction might read, “A secure password is required”; an active instruction might read, “Enter a secure password”;
    • Active voice helps with being concise – it is less wordy and more direct.

Use an informal writing style

    • Use 'you' and 'we' wherever possible.

Use supporting images and graphics to aid explanation

    • Some users may rely on icons or symbols to understand content
    • Always ensure icons are commonly used and easily identifiable – unfamiliar icons can be problematic to some users with cognitive impairments
    • Some users rely on clear, literal text and may not understand metaphors. For example, instead of saying “Early bird price”, say “Price for booking early”.
    • Always use a text label together with an icon, do not rely on iconography alone.


Table 1 - Examples of what to and what not to say

Do not say…

Do say…

"One must endeavour to ensure that simplicity is stringently upheld in order to facilitate comprehension”

“Keep it simple”

“In order to come into possession of”

“To get”

“Submit” (on a call-back form button)

“Call me now”

“The decision was made by Tom”

“Tom made the decision”

“Links to resources should be provided”

“Provide links to resources”

“e.g.”; “i.e.”; “etc.”

“for example”; “that is”; “and so on”


WCAG 2.1

    • 3.1.4 Abbreviations (AAA)
    • 3.1.5 Reading Level (AAA)

Further reading